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E-mail: ude. Abstract Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid GHB is used as an illicit drug and is implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assault, but it also has some therapeutic uses. Detection of GHB in urine is important for forensic testing and could be of clinical benefit in overdose management. Urine GHB concentration-time profiles have not been well-characterized or correlated with doses used therapeutically. ificant variability in GHB urine levels between individuals was observed. We conclude that the detection time for GHB in urine may be shorter than the ly reported h window in some people taking therapeutic doses of GHB.

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Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (ghb)

For forensic testing, by a police department with the report of a crime, it also involves time and expense and is not routinely included gghb testing panels. We look forward to a continued partnership with your agency. Instrumentation testing for GHB in biological samples has existed for some time but requires the right instrumentation in a lab, time and expense.

Subjects completed a medical history, physical examination, and screening laboratory tests yhb to enrollment. The plasma elimination half-life averages 40—60 min after single oral doses of Victims of DFSA or drugging for robbery, credit card fraud or sometimes even "just for laughs" often report difficulty in getting testing done for GHB in the emergency room.

Ghb urine concentrations after single-dose administration in humans

FINALLY A GHB SCREENING TEST FOR URINEORDER FORM LINK GHB has been a difficult drug to catch in testing due to rapid dissipation from blood and. The influence of factors, such as race, gender, and coingested drugs, on GHB urine concentrations has not been investigated.

Subjects were asked to rest in supine position for 3 h after dosing. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is used as an illicit drug and is implicated in Detection of GHB in urine is important for forensic testing and could be of.

Identification test : ghb

The challenge is especially critical in drug facilitated sexual assault cases involving GHB. GHB is rapidly absorbed after oral administration with maximal plasma concentrations reached in about 30—50 min 23. Blood samples were collected through an intravenous catheter at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, and 24 h after dosing.

It may simply indicate that the samples were not obtained during the brief window of opportunity or that the laboratory detection limits are too high for detection, potentially resulting in a false negative test. The mean and range of GHB concentrations in timed urine collections for the 16 subjects who completed the study are shown in Table I. Procedures The study was a randomized double-blind, four-arm, crossover de.

Urine was collected in intervals of 0—3, 3—6, 6—12, 12—24, and post h after dosing. Every effort should be made to get evidence taken quickly to improve the opportunity for detection. As typically follows, there have also been reports of GHB being associated with sexual assault or as a "date rape" drug due to its severe hypnotic and sedative effect at higher dosages.

It is inexpensive, requires no instrumentation and should be a game-changer for sexual assaults, drugged driving, drugging for robbery, overdose, death and drug abuse testing programs. We conclude that the detection time for GHB in urine may be shorter than the ly reported h window in some people taking therapeutic doses of GHB. There have also been increasing reports of GHB being used recreationally as a euphoriant at "rave" type parties.

Exclusion criteria included any ificant medical conditions, pregnancy, lactation, or obesity. There are hgb no commercially available assays for the rapid detection of GHB in urine that could be used in a hospital setting to diagnose GHB overdose. Result reports are available via our ToxAccess system. In the emergency room, GHB is often "identified" by the exhibited symptoms and by ruling out other drugs through standard hospital screening tests.


Subjects were asked not to drink alcoholic beverages for three days prior to each study day. In addition, negative emergency toxicology screening can hamper investigations of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault. To purchase kits, submit this order form to Express Diagnostics via fax or.

Due to the small size of GHB, immunological testing is very difficult and limited immunoassays are tets for screening. Because of this apparent stability as well as the ease of collection, urine is generally considered the optimal specimen for testing for the presence of GHB. This is especially true if not actually alleging DFSA or another crime. Abuse Typical illicit use of GHB involves dissolving 2 — 3 grams of powder in water or other beverages.

In a study of 50 female volunteers, the highest urine GHB concentration measured was 1. GHB just happens to be very short-lived.

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Now there is a quick and simple test for GHB in urine samples. Subjects were admitted to the General Clinical Research Center at San Francisco General Hospital for four h visits after an overnight fast from food, caffeine, and tobacco. This is followed up teet instrumentation tests to establish drug identity definitively and to identify the level of the drug s present.

Deaths have been reported when GHB is used alone or in conjunction with ethanol, heroin, or ketamine. Henri Laborit actually began clinical research about it.

Finally a ghb screening test for urine

In Italy, France and other European countries GHB was widely used as an anesthetic in childbirth and as a sleeping agent. Some specific drugs may be identifiable in ttest up to days after ingestion. Toxic effects include hypotension, respiratory depression, seizure, unconsciousness, and coma. Urine is the better sample, and collection of the first sample as quickly as possible is crucial.

Screening cut-off and detection time

More than 50 drugs have been identified in DFSA cases. Because endogeneous GHB concentrations in plasma and urine are readily detectable by highly sensitive analytical methods currently utilized for forensic testing purposes, interpretation of antemortem and postmortem GHB levels has been a topic of recent interest.

Delays in obtaining samples during long waits for examination will further limit the opportunity to detect GHB. GHB is also used therapeutically in Italy for treatment of alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

The salt form of GHB has been marketed in gymnasiums and health food stores for the past few years as a steroid alternative for body-building and as a tryptophan replacement for sedation. Postmortem urine does not exhibit the same variability in GHB levels as blood 7 twst, 8. GHB detection in urine relies on.